Publications

SMC research and monitoring programs are routinely featured in peer-reviewed scientific journals and technical reports. To request the full text of any of the SMC publications below, contact inquiries@socalsmc.org.

SMC Research Agendas

SMC Research Agendas are forward-looking documents that lay out the SMC’s key research priorities over the coming five years. Developed by an independent expert advisory panel, each Research Plan serves as a roadmap and a guide to help the SMC Steering Committee decide which projects to prioritize and fund each fiscal year.

  • Ashby, K., A. Davis, G. Gearheart, J. Harwood, T. Hogue, D. Kleis, S. Luce, P. Ode, D. Senn. 2020. Southern California Stormwater Monitoring Coalition Five-Year Research Agenda 2019-2024. Technical Report 1126. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Schiff, K.C., E.D. Stein, S. Aminzadeh, A. Boehm, G. Hildebrand, L. Honeybourne, I. Nasseri, P. Ode, S. Taylor, D. Senn, J. Smith, C. Sommers, E. Strecker. 2014. Southern California Stormwater Monitoring Coalition 2014 Research Agenda. Technical Report 828. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Bernstein, B., K.C. Schiff. 2002. Stormwater research needs in Southern California. Technical Report 358. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Westminster, CA.

SMC Annual Reports

SMC Annual Reports provide a summary of major the SMC’s progress and accomplishments over the past year. Stormwater regulated parties typically include the SMC’s Annual Report as part of the regulatory documents they submit to demonstrate compliance with their stormwater discharge permits.

Low Impact Development (LID)

Low-impact development (LID) refers to a series of engineered stormwater control measures – typically green infrastructure – designed to improve the quality of both wet- and dry-weather runoff. LID solutions are ubiquitous across Southern California, underscoring the SMC’s desire to optimize their placement, design, construction and maintenance.

  • Apt, D., J.M. Trapp, M. Yeager. 2020. California LID Evaluation and Analysis Network (SMC CLEAN) Phase 1 Final Project Report. Olaunu. San Clemente, CA.
  • Podolsky, L. 2012. Barriers to Low Impact Development. Local Government Commission. Sacramento, CA.
  • Low Impact Development Center. 2010. Low Impact Development Manual for Southern California: Technical Guidance and Site Planning Strategies. Low Impact Development Center Inc. Beltsville, MD.

Hydromodification

Hydromodification is the phenomenon by which changes in land use – including development and redevelopment projects – trigger changes in runoff patterns, potentially causing erosion and other modifications to the physical environment. The SMC has invested heavily in developing strategies, tools and methods for protecting Southern California streams vulnerable to hydromodification.

  • Stein E.D. and B.P. Bledsoe.  2013.  Framework for Developing Hydromodification Monitoring Programs.  Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #752.
  • Stein, E.D., F. Federico, D.B. Booth, B.P. Bledsoe, C. Bowles, Z. Rubin, G.M. Kondolf, and A. Sengupta.  2012.  Hydromodification Assessment and Management in California. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #667.
  • Hawley, R.J., B.P. Bledsoe and E.D. Stein  2011.  Hydromodification Effects on Flow Peaks and Durations in Southern California Urbanizing Watersheds.  Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report # 654.
  • Bledsoe B.P, R.J. Hawley, E.D. Stein, D.B. Booth. 2010.  Hydromodification Screening Tools: Technical Basis for Development of a Field Screening Tool for Assessing Channel Susceptibility to Hydromodification. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #607.
  • Booth D.B., S.R. Dusterhoff, E.D. Stein, B.P. Bledsoe.  2010.  Hydromodification Screening Tools: GIS-based catchment analyses of potential changes in runoff and sediment discharge. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #605.
  • Bledsoe, B. R. Hawley, and E.D. Stein.  2008.  Stream Channel Classification and Mapping Systems: Implications for Assessing Susceptibility to Hydromodification Effects in Southern California. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #562.
  • Stein, E.D. and S. Zaleski.  2005.  Managing Runoff to Protect Natural Streams:  The Latest Developments on Investigation and Management of Hydromodification in California.  Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #475.
  • Coleman, D., C. MacRae, E.D. Stein. 2005. Effect of increases in peak flows and imperviousness on the morphology of southern California streams. Technical Report 450. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Westminster, CA.

Stream Condition Assessment

Robust evaluations of the condition of Southern California streams are a foundational component of improving and protecting watershed health. The SMC has developed numerous tools and methods for assessing stream condition, especially biological tools that rely on the condition of sentinel aquatic life to quantitatively score stream health. Management interest in the SMC’s approach to stream condition assessment has been so strong that some tools have been adapted and adopted for use in routine stream monitoring programs statewide.

  • Beck, M., R.D. Mazor, S. Theroux, K.C. Schiff. 2019. The Stream Quality Index: A Multi-Indicator Tool for Enhancing Environmental Management Communication. Technical Report 1080 and SMC Stream Quality Index fact sheet. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA. Note: The Stream Quality Index was originally developed with limited data sets, with intent to eventually expand to encompass more historical data.
  • Mazor, R.D., M. Beck, J.S. Brown. 2018. 2017 Report on the Southern California Stormwater Monitoring Coalition Regional Stream Survey. Technical Report 1029. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Mazor, R.D., E.D. Stein. 2017. 2015 Report on the Stormwater Monitoring Coalition Regional Stream Survey. Technical Report 963 and SMC Bioassessment Survey fact sheet. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Mazor, R.D. 2015. Bioassessment Survey of the Stormwater Monitoring Coalition: Workplan for Years 2015 through 2019 Version 1.0. Technical Report 849. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Mazor, R.D. 2015. Bioassessment of Perennial Streams in Southern California: A Report on the First Five Years of the Stormwater Monitoring Coalition’s Regional Stream Survey. Technical Report 844. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Mazor, R., K. Schiff, P. Ode, and E.D. Stein. 2012. Final Report on Bioassessment in Nonperennial Streams – Report to the State Water Resources Control Board. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Technical Report #695.
  • Mazor, R.D., D.J. Gillett, K.C. Schiff, K. Ritter, E.D. Stein. 2011. Ecological Condition of Watersheds in Coastal Southern California: Progress Report of the Stormwater Monitoring Coalition’s Stream Monitoring Program First Year (2009). Technical Report 639. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Stormwater Monitoring Coalition Bioassessment Working Group. 2007. Regional monitoring of Southern California’s coastal watersheds. Technical Report 539. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.

Fecal Contamination

Fecal contamination is widespread in Southern California waterways during wet weather, even as managers’ ability to intervene effectively is hampered by a lack of understanding of where the contamination is originating. The SMC has invested in foundational work to characterize wet-weather fecal contamination in watersheds, and helped collect key regional data sets to confirm the contamination is from human sources.

  • Tiefenthaler, L.L., M. Sutula, Y. Cao, J.F. Griffith, M.R. Raith, C. Beck, R. Christoph, J. Shrake. 2015. Wet and Dry Weather Natural Background Concentrations of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in San Diego, Orange, and Ventura County, California Streams. Technical Report 862. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Tiefenthaler, L.L., M. Sutula, Y. Cao, J.F. Griffith, M.R. Raith, C. Beck, R. Christoph, J. Shrake. 2015. Wet and Dry Weather Natural Background Concentrations of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in San Diego, Orange, and Ventura County, California Streams (Appendix A). Technical Report 862.A. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Tiefenthaler, L.L., M. Sutula, Y. Cao, J.F. Griffith, M.R. Raith, C. Beck, R. Christoph, J. Shrake. 2015. Wet and Dry Weather Natural Background Concentrations of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in San Diego, Orange, and Ventura County, California Streams (Appendix B). Technical Report 862.B. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Tiefenthaler, L.L., M. Sutula, Y. Cao, J.F. Griffith, M.R. Raith, C. Beck, R. Christoph, J. Shrake. 2015. Wet and Dry Weather Natural Background Concentrations of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in San Diego, Orange, and Ventura County, California Streams (Appendix C). Technical Report 862.C. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Tiefenthaler, L.L., M. Sutula, Y. Cao, J.F. Griffith, M.R. Raith, C. Beck, R. Christoph, J. Shrake. 2015. Wet and Dry Weather Natural Background Concentrations of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in San Diego, Orange, and Ventura County, California Streams (Appendix D). Technical Report 862.D. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Griffith, J.F., B.A. Layton, A.B. Boehm, P.A. Holden, J.A. Jay, C. Hagedorn, C.D. McGee, S.B. Weisberg. 2013. The California Microbial Source Identification Manual: A Tiered Approach to Identifying Fecal Pollution Sources to Beaches. Technical Report 804. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Tiefenthaler, L.L., E.D. Stein, and G.S. Lyon.  2008.   Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) Levels During Dry Weather from Southern California Reference Streams.  Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #542.
  • Griffith, J.F., K.C. Schiff, G.S. Lyon. 2006. Microbiological water quality at non-human impacted reference beaches in southern California during wet weather. Technical Report 495. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Westminster, CA.
  • Griffith, J.F., S.B. Weisberg. 2006. Evaluation of Rapid Microbiological Methods for Measuring Recreational Water Quality. Technical Report 485. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Westminster, CA.
  • Schiff, K.C., J.F. Griffith, G. Lyon. 2005. Microbiological water quality at reference beaches in southern California during wet weather. Technical Report 448. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Westminster, CA.

Quality Assurance and Intercalibration

Stormwater toxicity testing is a foundational pillar of protecting receiving waters from contamination in discharges and runoff. The SMC routinely invests in regional quality-assurance and intercalibration exercises intended to ensure all laboratories that perform these tests are capable of producing high-quality, comparable results. SMC intercalibration projects are unique in that the work is performed on a regional scale using real-world scenarios. Participating labs are able to quantify the range of variability among their results, enabling all labs to work toward reducing variability and improving comparability in their testing practices.  

  • Schiff, K.C., D.J. Greenstein. 2016. Stormwater Monitoring Coalition Toxicity Testing Laboratory Guidance Document. Technical Report 956. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Gossett, R., K.C. Schiff. 2010. Stormwater Monitoring Coalition Laboratory Guidance Document (Third Edition). Technical Report 615. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Gossett, R., K.C. Schiff. 2007. Stormwater Monitoring Coalition laboratory guidance document (Second Edition). Technical Report 521. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Gossett, R., D. Renfrew, K.C. Schiff. 2004. Stormwater monitoring coalition laboratory guidance document. Technical Report 420. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Westminster, CA.

Stormwater Monitoring Programs

Stormwater monitoring programs are a core component of the day-to-day work of the SMC’s member agencies. The SMC has invested in developing best-practices guidance for how to design and administer these programs, paving the way for SMC member agencies to optimize the effectiveness of monitoring programs across Southern California.

  • Afrooz, A.R.M.N., K.C. Schiff. 2018. Southern California Stormwater Monitoring Coalition Unified Approach to Stormwater Monitoring. Technical Report 1059. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
  • Stein, E.D. and J. Brown.  2009.  Effects of post-fire runoff on surface water quality: Development of a southern California regional monitoring program.  Management questions and implementation recommendations. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #598.
  • Model Monitoring Technical Committee. 2004. Model monitoring program for municipal separate storm sewer systems in southern California. Technical Report 419. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Westminster, CA.
  • Cooper, L., K.C. Schiff, R. Smith. 2004. Standardized data exchange formats for the Stormwater Monitoring Coalition. Technical Report 421. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Westminster, CA.